Main Article Content
This study aimed at understanding the effects of corporate social responsibility, corporate image, customer attitude, and customer loyalty. The method used for this study was causality and non-probability sampling and purposive sampling were used as the data collection methods. The data source in this study was primary data collected using questionnaire instruments. The number of samples of the study was 100 respondents. The data analysis model in this study used path diagrams in the form of regression equations. The results of the statistical study showed that: (1) Corporate social responsibility and customer immunity both partially and simultaneously had a positive effect on customer attitude, (2) Corporate social responsibility and corporate image, both partially and simultaneously, had a positive effect on customer loyalty. (3) Corporate social responsibility, customer image, and customer attitude simultaneously had a significant effect on customer loyalty. Partially, only corporate social responsibility and customer image had a significant effect on customer loyalty, while customer attitude had no significant effect. (4) The customer attitude variable was able to mediate the effects of corporate social responsibility and customer image on customer loyalty.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The author sends the manuscript with the understanding that if accepted for publication, the copyright of the article belongs to the author and retains publishing rights without restriction.
Copyright includes the non-exclusive right to reproduce and submit articles in all forms and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilm, and other similar reproductions, as well as translations. Reproduction of any part of this journal, its storage in the database and its transmission by all forms of media, such as electronic, electrostatic and mechanical copies, photocopying, recording, magnetic media, etc.
The journal editorial board makes every effort to ensure that no false or misleading data, opinions, or statements are published in the journal. Either way, the contents of articles and advertisements published in journals are the sole and exclusive responsibility of each writer and advertiser.
All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. We are continuously working with our author communities to select the best choice of license options, currently being defined for this journal as follows: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
- Aydin, Serkan., dan Gokhan Ozer (2005) “The Analisis of Antecedents of Customer Loyalty in the Turkish Mobile Telecommunication Market” European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 39, No. 7/8, 910-925.
- Arjun, C., (1999) “Dose Brand Loyalty Mediate Brand Equity Outcome” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 7(2), 136-146
- Anderson, J.C., and Srinivasan, S.S., (2003) “E-Satisfaction and E-Loyalty: A Contingency a”, Psychological and Marketing, 20(2), 123-128
- Bhattacharya, C, B., Sen, S., and Korschun, D., (2011), “Leveraging Corporate Social Responsibility: The Stakeholder Route in Business and Social Value”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK
- Burton, S., Lichtenstein, D.R., Netemeyer, R.G., & Garretson, J.A., (1998) “A Scale for Measuring Attitude Toward Private Lebel Products and An Examination of Its Psychological and Behavioral Correlates”, Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science, 26(4), 293-306
- Balqiah, Tengku Ezni., (2018) “Green CSR and Brand Attitude: The Role of Stereotype Content Model”, European Research Studies Journal Volume XXI, Issue 1, pp. 230-249
- Bowen J.T., and Chen, S.L., (2001) “The Relationship Between Customer Loyalty and Customer Satisfaction”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management”, 13(5), 213-217
- Bove, L.L., Pervan, S.J., Beatty, S.E., and Shiu, E., (2009) “Service Worker Role in Encouraging Customer Organizational Citizenship Behavior”, Journal of Business Research. 62(7), 698-705
- Ball, Dwayne., Pedro S. Coelho dan Manuel J. Vilares (2006) “Service Personalization and Loyalty” Journal of Service Marketing, 20/6, 392-403.
- Bloemer, J.M.M., dan Ruyter K., (1999) “Customer Loyalty in High and Low Involvement Settings: The Moderating Impact of Positive Emotions” Journal of Marketing Management, p. 315-330.
- Baron, R.M., and Kenny, D.A., (1986) “The Mediator-Mediator Variable Distinction Social Psychological Research Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol 51. No.6, 1173-1182, Amerian Psychologyal Association, Inc.
- Churchill, Gilbert A., (2002) “Dasar-dasar Pemasaran”, Edisi 4, Jakarta, Erlangga
- Chung, Ki-Han., et al (2015) “The effect of CSR on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in China: The Moderating Role of Corporate Image”, Journal of Economics, Business and Management, Vol.3, No.5
- Carrol, A.B., (1999) “Corporate Social Responsibility: Evolution of a Definitional Construct”, Business Society, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 268-295
- Cheng, S.i., (2011) “Comparisons of Competing Models Between Attitudinal Loyalty and Behavioral Loyalty”, International Journal and Business and Social Science, 2(10), 149-166
- Changiz, Ekrem., Hasan Ayyidiz dan Bunyamin Er (2007) “Effect of Image and Advertising Efficiency on Customer Loyalty and Antecedents of Loyalty: Turkish Bank Sample” Banks and Bank Systems, Vol. 2, Issue 1
- Doorn, Jenny van.,Onrust, Marjolijn., Verhorf, Peter C., & Biigel, Marnix S., (2017) “The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Customer Attitudes and Retention: The Moderating Role of Brand Success Indicators:, Mark Lett, DOI 10.1007/s112-017-9433-6
- European Commission, (2014) “Communication from The Commission to The European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic, and Social Committee and The Committee of The Regions”, cit. 2014=04-09
- Engel, James F., Blackwell, Roger D., & Miniard, Paul W., (1992) “Consumer Behavior”, Sixth Edition, The Dryden Press, Chicago
- Foster, B.D., dan J.W. Gadogan (2000) “Relationship Selling and Customer Loyalty: An Empirical Investigation” Marketing Intelligence and Planning, Vol. 18 No. 4, pp. 185-199.
- Fornell, C., and Wernerfelt, B., (1987) “Defensive Marketing Strategy by Customer Complaint Management: A Theoretical Analysis”, Journal of Marketing Research, 24(4), 337-346
- Fornell, C., Johnson, M.D., Anderson, E.W., Cha, J., & Bryant, B.E., (1996) “The American Customer Satisfaction Index: Nature, Purpose, and Findings”, Journal of Marketing, 60(4), 7-18
- Fullerton, G., (2005) “The Impact of Brand Commitment on Loyalty to Retail Service Brands”, Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 22(2),97-110
- Ghazali, Imam., (2014) “Structural Equetion Modeling: Metode Alternatif dengan Partial LeastSquare” Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.
- Gray, James., (2005) “Managing the Corporate Image” USA, Quorum Books
- Gregory, R. James dan Wiechmann, Jack G., (1999) “Marketing Corporate Image” Illinois, NTC Business Books.
- Gremler, Dwayne D., (1999) “The Loyalty Ripple Effect Appreciating the Full Value of Customers” International Journal of Service Industry Management, Co-Authored
- Griffin, Hill., (2010) “Business”, Edisi Kedelapan, Edisi Bahasa Indonesia, Jakarta, Erlangga
- Ghaliyah, Dini., and Mubarok, Endang Saefuddin., (2017) “The Influence of Service Quality, Hospital Image, and Promotion to Patients’ Trust and Loyalty”, European Journal of Business and Management, Vol 9, No. 20
- Griffin, Jill., (1997) “Customer Loyalty: How to Earn It, How to Keep It” New York USA, Lexington Books.
- Gronroos, C., (2011) “A Service Perspective on Business Relationship: The Value Creation, Interaction and Marketing Interface” Industrial Marketing Management
- Han, H., Kim, Y., & Kim, E.K., (2011) “Cognitive, Affective, Conative, and Action Loyalty: Testing The Impact of Inertia”, International Journal Hospitality Management, 30(4), 1008-119
- Hair, Joseph F., Jr. Black William C, Babin Barry J. dan Ralph E. Anderson (2010) “Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective” New Jersey, Pearson Prentice Hall Seventh Edition.
- Heryanto (2011) “Effect of Marketing Strategy on Consumer Loyalty Bajapuik Saving at PT. BPR Berok Gunung Pangilun Padang” International Journal of Learn Thinking, Vol. 2 Issue 1, 59-87.
- Hayes, A.F., and Peacher, K.J., (2014) “Statistical Mediation Analysis with a Multicategorical Independent Variable”, British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical
- Irshad, Arslan., et al (2017) “The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty, Moderating Effect of Corporate Image (Evidence from Pakistan)”, City University Research Journal, Special Issue: AIC, Malaysia pp 63-73
- Iwasaki, Y., and Havitz, M.E., (2004) “Examining Relationships Between Leisure Involvement Psychological Commitment and Loyalty to A Recreation Agency”, Journal of Leisure Research, 36(1), 45-72
- Jasfar, Farida., (2009) “Manajemen Jasa: Pendekatan Terpadu”, Cetakan Kedua, Jakarta, Gramedia Indonesia
- Kotler, Philip., dan Keller, Kevin Lane. (2012) “Marketing Management” Essex Pearson Education Inc.
- Kodua, Prince., and Mensah, P., (2017) “The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Influencing Brand Loyalty”, Development in Marketing Science: Proceeding of the Academy of Marketing Science
- Kuncoro, Mudrajad, (2010), “Masalah, Kebijakan, dan Politik Ekonomi Pembangunan”, Penerbit Erlangga, Jakarta
- Kim, Sunyoong., (2017) “Investigating the Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Conative Loyalty in Collegiate Sports”, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville Sholar Works@UARK
- Kotler, Philip., and Lee, N., (2005) “Corporate Social Responsibility. Doin The Most Good for Your Company and Your Cause”, Hoboken, New Jersey, John Willey and Sons
- Kim, Ji-Hern., and Hyun, Yong J., (2011) “A Model to Investigate the Influence of Marketing-Mix Efforts and Corporate Image on Brand Equity in The IT Sofware Sector”, Industrial Marketing Management 40 (2011) 424-438
- Kumar, V., Shah, D., and Vencatesan, R., (2006) “Managing Retail Profitability: One Customer at a Time”, Journal of Retailing, 82(4), 277-294
- Iacobucci, Dawn., dan Amy Ostrom (1996) “Commercial and Interpersonal Relationship: Using the Structure of Interpersonal Relationships to Understand Individual to Individual, Individual to Firm, and Firm to Firm Relationship in Commerce” International Journal Research of Marketing Study, 13, 15–72.
- LeBlanc, G., dan Nguyen., (1996) “Cues Used by Customers Evaluating Corporate Image in Service Firms: An Empirical Study in Financial Institutions” International Journal of Service Industry Management, 7(2), 44-56.
- Moises, Ovidiu Ioan., (2015) “The Impact of Perceived CSR on Customer Loyalty in The Personal Care Products Market”, Journal Babes-Bolyai University, Vol 60.
- Madden et al (2012) “Linking Corporate Social Responsibility to Corporate Reputation: A Study on Understanding Behavioral Consequences”, Responsibility of 8th International Strategic Management Conference, 2012
- Mowen, J.C., dan M. Minor., (2007) “Consumer Behavior; A Framework” Prentice Hall, Inc.
- Ndubisi, Nelson Oly (2007) “Relationship Marketing and Customer Loyalty” Marketing Intelligence and Planning, Vol. 25, No. 1, 98-106.
- Nugroho, Erwin Sapto., (2017) “Pengaruh CSR Pada Kepuasan dan Loyalitas Konsumen dengan Citra Perusahaan Sebagai Variabel Moderasi”, Yogyakarta, UII
- Nasir, Asma Azura Binti Mohd., (2004) “The Impact of Service Quality and Corporate Image on Customer Loyalty: A Study on Perodua Service Centre”, March 2004
- Oliver, R.L., (1997) “Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on The Customer”, Boston, MA. McGraw Hill
- Peter, Paul., and Olson, Jerry., (2008) “Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy”, New York, McGraw-Hill Education
- Rashid, Nik Ramli Nik Abdul., Khalid, Shaiful Annuar., & Rahman, Nor Irwani Abdur., (2015) “Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility (ECSR): Exploring its Influence on Customer Loyalty”, Procedia Economics and Finance 31 (2015) 705-713
- Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn dan Rebekah Bennett(2001) “A Brand for All Seasons? A Discussion of Brand Loyalty Approaches and Their Applicability for Different Market” Journal of Proddi Empirikuct and Brand Management, Vol.10 No.1, 25-37
- Souiden, Nizar., dan Frank Pons (2009) “Product Recall Crisis Management: The Impact on Manufacture’s Image, Consumer Loyalty and Purchase Intention” Journal of Product and Brand Management, 18/2, 106-114.
- Suriadi, S. Pradiono., (2014) “Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan, Citra Rumah Sakit dan Promosi Terhadap Kepercayaan dan Dampaknya Pada Loyalitas Pasien”
- Sunarwan, U., (2003) “Perilaku Konsumen: Teori dan Penerapannya Dalam Pemasaran”, Jakarta, Erlangga
- Susanto, A.B., (2009) “Reputation Driven, Corporate Social Responsibility: Pendekatan Strategi Manajemen dalam CSR”, Jakarta, Erlangga
- Sofyan, Mariyudi., (2017) “Pengaruh CSR Terhadap Citra Merek dan Loyalitas Merek”, Jurnal Siasat Bisnis, Vol 21, No 1. 1-18
- Shabbir, Muhammad Salman., et al (2018) “Corporate Social Responsibility and Customer Loyalty in Islamic Banking of Pakistan: A Mediating Role of Brand Image”, Accademy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal, Volume 22, Special Issue, 2018
- Sridhar and Ganesan, P., (2016) “The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Customer Performance and Behavioral Intention”, Journal Great Lakes Herald. Vol. 10. No. 1
- Tsiotsou, R.H., (2013) “Sports Team Loyalty: Integrating Relationship Marketing and A Hierarchy of Effect”, Journal of Service Marketing. 27(6), 411-427
- Tang, Weiwei., (2007) “Impact of Corporate Image dan Corporate Reputation on Customer Loyalty” Science dan Engineering, Vol. 1 No. 2. Dec.
- Wu, Shwu-Ing. And Wang, Wen-Hsuan., (2014) “Impact of CSR on Brand Image, Brand Attitude, and Buying Willingness: A Study of a Global Cafe”, Internationa Journal of Marketing Studies; Vol. 6, No. 6
- Walker, John., (2007) “Service Climate in New Zealand English Language Centers” Journal of Education Administration, Vol. 45 No. 3, 315-337.